We live in times of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Societal challenges are often wicked – they are not only technically complex but they are also complex at the social level, as there is no consensus about underlying values. Wicked problems supersede the borders of organizations, jurisdictions and domains and cannot be tackled by one actor alone.

Complex societal issues call for appropriate governance, yet existing organizational and governance arrangements are far from suitable for that task. That is why various parties ( governments, businesses, societal organizations and individual citizens) experiment with a wide range of new, hybrid forms of governance to overcome the shortcomings of traditional governance regimes. Examples include citizens’ initiatives, social enterprises and other forms of social innovation, as well as governments that aim to create innovation and synergy in public service provision through coproduction and the introduction of market-type mechanisms.

Hybrid governance arrangements and organizations transcend the borders between traditional sectors (state, market and society), policy domains and jurisdiction levels. They combine different and inherently contradictory governance mechanisms (state, market networks and self-organization) in new and innovative ways and foster coproduction between different societal actors. Ideally, they combine the strengths of each governance mode and compensate or mitigate its weaknesses. But, given their fundamentally different nature, hybrid arrangements will always create tensions. These tensions can be made productive when they lead to synergy and innovation. But they can also become destructive and lead to problems such as mission drift, cultural clashes and accountability issues.

My research is aimed at understanding the meaning of hybridity, how different forms of organizations and governance arrangements are hybrid and what positive and negative effects their hybridity produces for organizations, their customers, political principals and society at-large. Below you will find a selection of my publications on those subjects.

See below for a selection of my publications on hybridity.

Publications on Hybridity (selection)

Karré, P.M. (2024). Social enterprises and public organizations: allies of adversaries? Introduction to special issue, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 305-316. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPSM-04-2024-356

Karré, P.M. & Van Meerkerk, I. (2023). The Challenge of Navigating the Double Hybridity in the Relationship between Community Enterprises and Municipalities, Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10.1080/19420676.2023.2263772

Fenger, H.J.M, Karré, P.M. & Blok, S.N. (2023). Conceptualizing new forms of volunteering in urban governance, Urban Governance, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ugj.2023.09.002.

Karré, P.M. (2022). The Thumbprint of a Hybrid Organization—A Multidimensional Model for Analysing Public/Private Hybrid Organizations. Public Organiz Rev (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-021-00598-2

Karré, P. M. (2021). Hybridity as a Result of the Marketization of Public Services: Catalyst or Obstruction for Sustainable Development? Sustainability, 13(1), 252. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13010252

Karré, P.M. (2021). Value creation by two types of hybrid organisations: opportunities and risks. In J. Vakkuri & J.-E. Johanson (eds.) Hybrid Governance, Organisations and Society. Value Creation Perspectives (pp. 202-218). London & New York: Routledge.

Brandsen T. & P.M. Karré (2021) Hybridization and Hybridity. In: R.A. List., H.K. Anheier & S. Toepler (eds) International Encyclopedia of Civil Society. Springer, Cham.

Koppenjan, J., K. Termeer & P.M. Karré (2021). Comparing New Hybrid Governance Arrangements: Better and Smarter? In J.S. Ott & L.A. Dicke (eds.). The Nature of the Nonprofit Sector (pp. 480-490). New York and London, Routledge.

Karré, P.M. (2020) Conceptualizing hybrid organizations: a public administration approach. In: Billis, D. & Rochester, C. (eds.), International Handbook of Hybrid Organizations, Cheltenham Glos: Edward Elgar, pp. 31-47.

Koppenjan, J.F.M., P.M. Karré & C.J.A.M. Termeer (eds.) (2019). New governance arrangements. Towards hybrid and smarter governance?, The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.

Karré, P.M. (2013). Hybrid organizations in waste management: Public and private organizations in a deregulated market. In: Zapata M.J. & M. Hall (eds.), Constructions and narratives of waste: An interdisciplinary approach. Bristol: Policy Press.

Brandsen, T. & P.M. Karré (2013). The inexorable rise of hybrid organizations in the Netherlands. In: Zimmer, A. (ed.), Civil societies compared: Germany and the Netherlands. Nomos: Baden-Baden.

Karré, P.M. (2012) Innovatieve organisatievormen in de publieke dienstverlening. Van compact en klein naar meervoudig en hybride. Bestuurskunde. 21(2), pp. 71-76.

Karré, P.M. (2011). Heads and Tails: both sides of the coin; An analysis of hybrid organizations in the Dutch waste management sector. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.

Brandsen, T. & P.M. Karré (2011). Hybrid organizations – No cause for concern. International Journal of Public Administration. 34(13), 827-836.

Karré, P.M. (2011). Marktwerking in de publieke dienstverlening. Kansen en risico’s van hybride organisaties. Socialisme & Democratie, 73(7/8), 159-164.

Karré, P.M. (2011). Hybriditeit in de gemeentelijke afvalverwerking: resultaten uit een meervoudige case study. Bestuurswetenschappen, 4, 52-68.

Dicke,W., M.A. van der Steen, P.M. Karré & M.J.W. van Twist (2011). Private Investeringen in het Publieke Domein, Openbaar Bestuur, 18-22.

Karré, P.M. & C.J. van Montfort (2011). Botsende waarden in de corporatiesector. Bestuurskunde, 20(2), 44-52.

Brandsen, T. & P.M. Karré (2010). Hybride organisaties – Een overzicht van het onderzoek in de Nederlandse bestuurskunde. Bestuurswetenschappen, 2, 71-85.

Karré, P.M. & R.J. in ’t Veld (2007). Spanningen in organisaties met publieke en private relaties – Een verdiepende case study. M&O, 61(3-4), 189-202.

Karré, P.M. & R.J. in ’t Veld (2007). Spanningen in organisaties met publieke en private relaties – Een verdiepende case study. In: J.J. Boonstra (ed.). Ondernemen in allianties en netwerken – Een multidisciplinair perspectief (pp. 197-210). Deventer: Kluwer.

Karré, P.M. (2006). Caleidoscooporganisaties – Culturele aspecten van hybriditeit in organisaties. In: T. Brandsen, W. van de Donk & P. Kenis (eds.). Meervoudig Bestuur – Publieke dienstverlening door hybride organisaties (pp. 55-72). Den Haag: Lemma.

Karré, P.M. (2005). Caleidoscooporganisaties – Culturele aspecten van hybriditeit in organisaties. Bestuurskunde, 14(3), 21-26.